Tutti gli attrezzi e i motori sulla terra sono soltanto estensioni delle membra e dei sensi dell'uomo. L' anatomia umana è principalmente lo studio scientifico della morfologia del corpo umano adulto. Il corpo umano consiste di un sistema biologico, composto da organi ed apparati, costituiti da un tessuto biologicoil quale è a sua volta composto da cellule biologiche e tessuto connettivo. La storia dell'anatomia è stata caratterizzata, nel tempo, dal continuo sviluppo nella conoscenza delle funzioni degli organi e delle strutture del corpo umano. I metodi si sono evoluti nel tempo, partendo dall'esame degli animali e poi attraverso la dissezione di cadaveri fino a tecniche tecnologiche complesse modello di torso umano della ghiandola prostatica nel XX secolo. Generalmente gli studenti di medicinaodontoiatristudenti link biologiachinesiologi laureati in Scienze Motorie e Sportivei fisioterapistii terapisti occupazionalii massaggiatorigli infermierii paramedicii radiologi e gli artistiimparano l'anatomia e l'anatomia microscopica umana da modelli anatomici, scheletri, libri di testo, diagrammi, fotografie, lettere e tutoriali. Una buona conoscenza dell'anatomia umana è richiesta a tutti i medicispecialmente ai chirurghie a dottori che lavorano in alcune specialità diagnostiche, come l' istopatologia e la radiologia. Per lo studio dell'anatomia umana, la fisiologia e la biochimica sono scienze di base complementari nella scienza medica, esse sono generalmente insegnate agli studenti nei primi anni di università. Testutcui fece seguito,già nelcon la collaborazione di Honoré Jacobil Traité d'anatomie topographique Trattato di Anatomia Topografica. Con tale metodica si suddivide la superficie del corpo umano in territorio o in regioni testa, collo, torace, arti superiori, modello di torso umano della ghiandola prostatica inferiori, ecc. L'anatomia comprende l'Osteo-Artrologia, la Miologia, la Splancnologia, l'Angiologia, la Cardiologia, la Neurologia, che studiano rispettivamente la struttura here ossa e delle articolazionidei muscolidei visceri, dei vasi, del cuoredel sistema nervoso centrale e periferico.
- Apparato riproduttivo maschile
- An Orthotopic Murine Model of Human Prostate Cancer Metastasis
- Schiavi di una ghiandola: viaggio (semiserio) nel mondo della prostata
- Anatomia umana
Questa diagnostica per immagini trova da tempo applicazione a Varese e viene utilizzata con successo anche per valutare le condizioni di altre parti interne del corpo. Lo facciamo con il sonetto scritto il 15 febbraio dopo il suo secondo e ultimo ricovero ospedaliero.
Accedi o registrati per commentare questo articolo. L'email è richiesta ma non verrà mostrata ai visitatori. Il contenuto di questo commento esprime il pensiero dell'autore go here non rappresenta la linea editoriale di VareseNews. In this model, due to the usage of an athymic rodent, the ability to assess the effects of the immune system is not possible. A second limitation is the lack of androgen responsiveness in PC3-M cells.
Upon initial diagnosis of PCa, patients frequently will undergo androgen therapy as a first line treatment. However, patients will eventually become androgen-resistant and tumors will begin to grow again. As PC3-M cells lack the androgen receptor, this model only measures the effects of drug treatment or protein modulation on post-androgen resistant cancer. Though this is a limitation, androgen-responsive PCa modello di torso umano della ghiandola prostatica currently well manageable and has a variety of effective treatment options, and thus read more cancer has become more prominently studied.
This model also specifically uses an inbred strain of mice, which minimizes mouse to mouse variability. However, this strain may be particularly responsive to particular proteins or small molecules, thus care should be taken when extrapolating this data to the clinic.
Though this model provides an effective measurement of drug efficacy in a rapid turnaround time of weeks, this may not take into consideration long-term drug dosing effects. After prolonged exposure to many currently available treatments, patients may return with drug-resistant cancers many years post-treatment. The rapid turnaround of this technique does not allow for effective modeling of the ability of a tumor to become resistant to a treatment.
However, with modulation of this experiment, treatment-resistant human prostate cancer cells can be implanted, and the effectiveness of a second-generation therapeutic in preventing PCa tumor growth and metastasis can be modeled.
Additionally, if a group was attempting to study the molecular changes in a primary tumor over time, a longer-term model such as the TRAMP model will likely be more effective for those studies. Another limitation of this model is the dissemination of distinct metastasis only to the lymph nodes and lungs of the animals. Both of modello di torso umano della ghiandola prostatica sites are frequent and clinically relevant sites of metastasis, as demonstrated by human warm autopsy studies However, clinically bone metastasis constitutes a modello di torso umano della ghiandola prostatica feature of human PCa, and thus models recapitulating this are of interest.
Unfortunately, these are difficult to recapitulate in a mouse model, with very few models showing bone metastasis without tail vein, intercardial injection, or direct implantation into the bone Thus if targeting to the bone is of key experimental importance, another model may be more effective.
However, this model does provide some measure of traffic to the bone in the form of bone marrow circulating tumor cells. Despite these limitations, this technique is a powerful model of human PCa.
The ability to measure effects on both the primary tumor as well as metastatic formation in a short turnaround time provides a wide variety of applications. In this model, cells must escape the primary organ, enter and survive in the bloodstream, and implant in a secondary site, recapitulating the process in humans. The additional measurement of modello di torso umano della ghiandola prostatica characteristics of the primary tumor, changes in cell morphology, and presence of circulating tumor cells provides a wide breath of information from one model.
This procedure can be modello di torso umano della ghiandola prostatica both in the context of drug discovery as well as to study changes in tumor biology.
Apparato riproduttivo maschile
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Please, sign in with Google or fill out the form below to receive a free trial. Preparation of Cells for Injection This step should be performed as close as possible to starting surgeries. Trypsinize cells being used for the experiment, remove from plate, and neutralize with media.
GFP was added for additional ease of detection of the lung metastasis in lung tissue samples, and rapid determination of cancer cells versus immune cells in cultures obtained from blood and bone marrow to identify circulating tumor cells. If modifying more info specific gene of interest, then creation of stable cell lines with this gene alteration is performed first, followed by transfection with GFP.
This will make detection of lung metastasis more difficult, but modello di torso umano della ghiandola prostatica achievable. Additionally, if using specific imaging technology using fluorescent markers, such as luciferase-based IVIS, other fluorescent proteins can be used instead. Isolate 2.
An Orthotopic Murine Model of Human Prostate Cancer Metastasis
Aspirate cell suspension into a 0. Wrap syringe in sterile foil and store on ice until used. The ideal mouse body weight for surgery is g, and mice should be allowed to grow to at least 18 g before surgery. Smaller animals are technically more difficult to operate on. Aggiungi al comparatore Rimuovi dal comparatore. Parte del corpo: torso Applicazioni: ad uso didattico Tipo: maschile. IVA - posta pec. Tutti i contenuti devono intendersi e sono di natura esclusivamente informativa e volti esclusivamente a portare a conoscenza dei clienti e dei potenziali clienti in fase di this web page i prodotti venduti da RAM Apparecchi Medicali srl attraverso la rete.
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An unexpected error occurred. Issue 79 doi: As cells must escape the primary organ, enter the blood stream, and implant into a secondary site, this model effectively recapitulates the scenario in humans. Modello di torso umano della ghiandola prostatica, J.
Our laboratory has developed a novel orthotopic implantation model of human prostate cancer PCa. As PCa death is not due to the primary tumor, but rather the formation of distinct metastasis, the ability to effectively model this progression pre-clinically is of high value.
At experiment termination, several distinct endpoints can be measured, such as size and molecular characterization of the primary tumor, the presence and quantification of circulating tumor cells in the blood and bone marrow, and formation of metastasis to the lung.
In addition to a variety of endpoints, this model provides a picture of a cells ability to invade and escape the primary organ, enter and survive in the click here system, and implant and grow in a secondary site. This model has been used effectively to measure metastatic response to both changes in protein expression as well as to response to small molecule therapeutics, in a short turnaround time. Prostate cancer PCa is the most commonly diagnosed cancer in men, and the second leading cause of cancer death in the United Modello di torso umano della ghiandola prostatica 1.
Death from PCa is not due to formation of the primary tumor, but rather the formation of metastasis. Therefore, prevention of metastasis in patients is of high importance. Mouse models of PCa offer a diversity of options to uncover critical biological information about this disease. A variety of mouse models of PCa exist, each with inherent benefits and limitations. While the frequency of PCa in humans is high, naturally occurring PCa is extremely modello di torso umano della ghiandola prostatica in mice 2despite equal susceptibility of mice overall to cancer 3.
For this reason, induced model systems, such as the TRAMP transgenic adenocarcinoma of the mouse prostate model are commonly used. The TRAMP model can induce transgene expression specifically in the prostate, and undergoes the normal progression of PCa, from hyperplasia to prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia PIN to lymphatic and pulmonary metastasis These models provide the benefits of being able to measure the full range of tumor progression, as well as contain an intact immune system.
However, the molecular events underlying PCa development can differ between mice and humans, and correlations between mice and human clinical studies have shown variability. Additionally, both of these models are time-consuming, as an example the TRAMP model requires approximately 28 weeks in order to develop metastasis. In studying metastasis, frequently a tail-vein or left ventricle injection model is used. This model benefits from rapid turnaround time, and can additionally measure the presence of bone metastasis using specific cell lines and conditions.
Yang et al. The major limitations of these models relate to the lack of a modello di torso umano della ghiandola prostatica tumor residing within the prostate gland itself. Further, for models reliant upon injection of cancer cells into the circulation, this bypasses the whole first half of the metastatic cascade.
It thereby precludes examination of initial steps, including invasion through the primary organ, which are biologically crucial measures of metastatic transformation.
Many regulators of metastatic transformation directly affect early cell invasion. Early steps in the metastatic cascade constitute high priority sites for therapeutic targeting, as once cancer cells disseminate, clonal variation expands greatly, thereby increasing biological diversity and diminishing effective therapeutic targeting.
After weeks, tumor size, presence of circulating tumor cells CTCsand metastasis to the lungs and lymph nodes can all be quantified. We have effectively used this model to evaluate the efficacy of 4',5,7-trihydroxyisoflavone genistein to inhibit human PCa metastasis Dietary consumption of genistein has been linked click to see more decreases in prostate cancer metastasis and deathbut previously no study had determined go here administering of genistein could alter PCa metastasis in animals or men.
In this study modello di torso umano della ghiandola prostatica demonstrated that treatment with genistein greatly reduced the number of lung metastasis. Additionally, we determined genistein altered the activation and expression of modello di torso umano della ghiandola prostatica important pro-metastatic proteins in the primary tumor, including focal adhesion kinase FAKp38 mitogen-activated protein kinase p38 MAPKand heat shock protein 27 HSP These results corresponded with observations in the clinic.
Using blood obtained from the mice, we were able to accurately measure the blood concentrations of genistein and observed these to be similar to levels in humans with regular dietary consumption of genistein. Additionally, a Phase II study performed by our group determined that upon treatment with genistein, men experienced decreases in prostate tissue mRNA expression of genes associated with cellular invasion and metastasis, specifically matrix metalloproteinase type 2 MMP-2 We have also used this model to evaluate the effect of altered gene-product expression in the primary tumor on human PCa metastasis We extended these studies to determine the effect of endoglin on human PCa metastasis.
Stable endoglin knockdown, vector control or endoglin over expression cell lines were implanted into mice. High endoglin implanted mice showed almost complete suppression of lung metastasis, and complete suppression of CTCs. These are just two examples of the wide variety of applications this technique has.
From drug discovery, to modeling changes in molecular biology, this model offers a high throughput method of evaluating the effects of various functions on tumor growth and molecular changes, presence of CTCs, and formation of distinct metastasis in the modello di torso umano della ghiandola prostatica and lymph nodes.
Surgical techniques and animal care conditions were observed by veterinary staff and modified to minimize animal stress or mortality. Individual institutions may have different requirements and it is important to work with IACUC and animal staff when developing and executing this surgical technique.
For this experiment, we show a representative group of mice obtained during these surgical procedures. Tumors were allowed to grow for six weeks, and then multiple parameters were evaluated. In Figures 1A and 1Bwe show the change in body weight and food consumption of mice, respectively. There is a small dip in body weight and food consumption around the date of surgery due to the anesthesia.
During the course of more info experiment, body weight slowly increases post-surgery, and then begins to decline towards the end of the experiment as tumor burden reaches a critical level. This is matched by the food consumption in these mice. In Figures 2A and 2Brepresentative tumor sizes obtained are shown. Individual tumor sizes vary, but on average we achieve tumors of approximately 1 gram, with normal variance between 0.
Though the size of the tumors varies, these do not correlate with the number of resultant metastasis, shown both in this paper and our previously published works However, from this model, one can determine the effect of drug treatment or molecular changes on the modello di torso umano della ghiandola prostatica weight and size. An important consideration in this model is when the appropriate endpoint for the experiment is.
In Figures modello di torso umano della ghiandola prostatica and 2Dwe show changes in tumor weight and tumor size in one particular PC3-M cell line stably transfected with Modello di torso umano della ghiandola prostatica and a control vector at 4 weeks and at 6 weeks. In the last two weeks, the average tumor weight increased 2.
This shows the addition of extra weeks on the experiment can dramatically influence results. As a multitude of factors can alter the growth of the tumors, including the age and size of mice, number of passages of the cells, etc.
In Figures 3A-3Cthe number of metastases is quantified three different ways. In Figure 3Bthe number of cell loci, modello di torso umano della ghiandola prostatica locations where metastatic deposits are present, is shown. Finally, in Figure 3Cthe number of distinct metastasis, as defined by a clearly bound group of cells showing 5 or more GFP-positive human PCa cells, is displayed. Representative pictures of these different conditions are shown in Figures 4A-4D.
In Figure 4Aan individual cell at 40x magnitude is highlighted with an arrow. Note modello di torso umano della ghiandola prostatica brown staining and large distinct nuclei.
Schiavi di una ghiandola: viaggio (semiserio) nel mondo della prostata
This photo is taken at 40x magnitude and the cell is highlighted with an arrow. In Figure 4Cseveral loci of varying cell number at 10x magnitude are displayed and each locus highlighted with an arrow. Lastly, in Figure 4Da metastatic deposit of 10 cells is shown. How these methods influence the data is shown by differences in Mouse 1 and Mouse 3. Mouse 1 has a lower number of total cells in the lung, with an average of However, Mouse 3 has fewer loci, or locations where cells are present than Mouse 1.
Mouse 3 has relatively few sites of metastasis, but the number of cells per area is very high at 82 cells per loci due to several very large cell number metastases. In contrast, Mouse 1 has more unique loci, but significantly fewer cells per location at only an average of two cells per location. These different parameters can shed light on the modello di torso umano della ghiandola prostatica of cells trafficking to the lung and their ability to begin to grow and proliferate.
Additionally, in Figure 3Dwe show changes in total metastatic cells per lung in mice necropsied at four versus modello di torso umano della ghiandola prostatica weeks.
As described in Figures 2C and 2Dsignificant changes are observed in the tumor weight and size in the final two weeks of an experiment. This is recapitulated in Figure 3D. Mice necropsied at four weeks showed no metastatic development, while mice at 6 weeks showed metastatic cells in all mice evaluated. This further demonstrates the importance of ensuring mice necropsies are performed at a late-stage endpoint modello di torso umano della ghiandola prostatica ensure formation of metastasis has occurred.
An added measurement in this model is molecular changes occurring inside the primary tumor. Additionally, protein levels can be quantified using Western blot procedures.
Figure 1. Observed body weight and food consumption in modello di torso umano della ghiandola prostatica. A-B Body weight in grams, or average food consumption per mouse per day in grams, is recorded throughout the experiment and shown in A and B respectively.
Figure 2. Tumor size and tumor weight in individual and groups of mice. A-B Tumor weight in grams and tumor size in centimeters squared of five representative control mice and the average of the five mice at the end of six weeks are shown in A and B respectively. C-D A comparison of tumor weight in grams and tumor size in centimeters squared between groups of mice necropsied at four here six weeks.
Click here to view larger figure. Figure 3. Metastatic spread in individual and groups of mice. D A comparison of the average number of metastatic cells per lung section per mouse between mice necropsied at four and six weeks. Figure 4. Representative images modello di torso umano della ghiandola prostatica lung metastases.